The Mega Drive (メガドライブ Mega Doraibu ) is a fourth generation video game console released by Sega in Japan in 1988 and Europe in 1990. The console was released in North America in 1989 under the name Genesis, as Sega was unable to secure legal rights to the Mega Drive name in that region. The Mega Drive, heavily marketed as "16-bit" due to its hardware, was Sega's fifth home console and the successor to the Sega Master System, with which it is electronically compatible.
The Mega Drive was the first of its generation to achieve notable market share in Europe and North America. It was a direct competitor of the TurboGrafx-16 (which was released one year earlier in Japan under the name PC Engine, but at about the same time as the Genesis in North America) and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (which was released two years later). The Mega Drive began production in Japan in 1988 and ended with the last new licensed game being released in 2002 in Brazil.
The Mega Drive was Sega's most successful console, with over 29 million units sold worldwide. The console and many of its games are still popular today: Some games have been re-released in compilations for newer consoles and/or offered for download on various online services, such as Xbox Live Arcade and Virtual Console. The console is also still popular for fan translations and indie game development.
Although the Sega Master System was a success in Europe, and later also Brazil, it failed to ignite much interest in the North American or Japanese markets, which, by the mid-to-late 1980s, were both dominated by Nintendo's large market shares. Meanwhile in the arcades, the Sega System 16 had become a success. Hayao Nakayama, Sega's CEO at the time, decided to make its new home system utilize a similar 16-bit architecture. The final design was eventually also used in the Mega-Tech, Mega-Play and System-C arcade machines. Any game made for the Mega Drive hardware could easily be ported to these systems.
The first name Sega considered for its console was the MK-1601, but it ultimately decided to call it the "Mega Drive". The name was said to represent superiority and speed, with the powerful Motorola 68000 processor in mind. Sega used the name Mega Drive for the Japanese, European, Asian, Australian and Brazilian versions of the console. The North American version went by the name "Genesis" due to a trademark dispute.
The Mega Drive was released in Japan on October 29, 1988. Sega announced a North American release date for the system (under the name of Sega Genesis) on January 9, 1989. Sega initially attempted to partner with Atari Corporation for distribution of the console in the US, but the two could not agree to terms and Sega decided to do it themselves. Sega was not able to meet the initial release date and US sales began on August 14, 1989 in New York City and Los Angeles. The Genesis was released in the rest of North America later that year.
The European release was on November 30, 1990. Following on from the European success of the Sega Master System, the Mega Drive became a very popular console in Europe. Unlike in other regions where the Nintendo Entertainment System had been the dominant platform, the Sega Master System was the most popular console in Europe at the time. In the United Kingdom the most well known of Sega's advertising slogans was "To be this good takes AGES, to be this good takes SEGA". Some of these adverts employed adult humour and innuendo with sentences like "The more you play with it, the harder it gets" displayed with an illustration of the waggling of a joystick. A prominent figure in the European marketing was the "Sega Pirate", a talking one-eyed skull that starred in many TV adverts with a generally edgy and humorous attitude. Since the Mega Drive was already two years old at the release in Europe, the many games available at launch were naturally more in numbers compared to the launches in other regions. The ports of arcade titles like Altered Beast, Golden Axe and Ghouls 'n Ghosts, available in stores at launch, provided a strong image of the console's power to deliver an arcade-like experience. The arrival of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 was just as successful as in North America, with the new Sega mascot becoming popular throughout the continent.
In Brazil, the Mega Drive was released by Tec Toy in 1990, only a year after the Brazilian release of the Sega Master System. Tec Toy also ran the Internet service Sega Meganet service in Brazil as well as producing games exclusively for the Brazilian market. On December 5, 2007, Tec Toy released a portable version of Mega Drive with 20 built-in games.
In India, distribution of the Mega Drive was handled by Shaw Wallace.
Console wars Edit
The Mega Drive initially competed against the aging 8-bit NES, over which it had superior graphics and sound. Despite this, the Mega Drive was all but ignored in Japan as soon as it was launched. Some positive coverage came out of magazines Famitsu and Beep!, but Sega shipped only 400,000 units in the first year. In order to sell more units, Sega tried some risky moves, including creating an online banking system and answering machine called the Sega Anser and several peripherals and games. The Mega Drive remained a distant third in Japan behind Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC-Engine throughout the 16-bit era.
New Sega of America CEO Michael Katz instituted a two-part approach to build sales in that region. The first part involved a marketing campaign to challenge Nintendo head-on and emphasize the more arcade-like experience available on the Genesis, summarized by the slogan "Genesis does what Nintendon't". The second part, since Nintendo owned the console rights to most arcade games of the time, involved creating a library of instantly-recognizable titles by contracting with celebrities and athletes to produce games using their names and likenesses; Pat Riley Basketball, Arnold Palmer Tournament Golf, James 'Buster' Douglas Knockout Boxing, Joe Montana Football, Tommy Lasorda Baseball, Mario Lemieux Hockey, and Michael Jackson's Moonwalker all stemmed from this initiative. Nonetheless, it had a hard time overcoming Nintendo's ubiquitous presence in the consumer's home.
Sega CEO Hayao Nakayama, fearing a second market failure soon after the Master System, hired Tom Kalinske to replace Katz in mid-1990. Although Kalinske initially knew little about the video game market, he learned quickly and surrounded himself with industry-savvy advisors. A believer in the razor and blades business model, he developed a four-point plan: cut the price of the console; create a US-based team to develop games targeted at the American market; continue and expand the aggressive advertising campaigns; and replace the bundled game with a new title, Sonic The Hedgehog. The Japanese board of directors asked "Are you out of your mind?", but Nakayama approved all four points. Magazines praised Sonic as one of the greatest games yet made, and Sega's console finally took off as customers who had been waiting for the Super NES decided to purchase a Genesis instead. Nintendo's console would debut against an established competitor, while NEC's TurboGrafx-16 was left out and NEC soon pulled out of the market.
Sega began 1992 with a number of advantages: a 55% to 45% market share over the Super NES, a lower price, and a tenfold advantage in number of games. Sega's advertising continued to position the Genesis as the "cooler" console, and at one point in its campaign, it used the term "Blast Processing" to suggest that the processing capabilities of the Genesis were far greater than those of the SNES. A Sony focus group found that teenage boys would not admit to owning a Super NES rather than a Genesis. Neither console could maintain a definitive lead in market share for several years.
In Europe, the Mega Drive maintained support through 1998. It outsold all other consoles, including the Sega Saturn, in later years. Brazil also saw success with the Mega Drive, where it held 75% of the market share.
In early 1991, Sega announced the Mega-CD for release in Japan in late 1991 and in North America (as the Sega CD) in 1992. While this add-on did contain a faster CPU, more memory and some enhanced graphics capabilities over the Mega Drive itself, the main focus of the device was to expand the size of games: cartridges of the day typically contained 8 to 16 megabits of data, while a CD-ROM would hold 640 megabytes (5120 megabits). While it became known for several games, including Sonic CD and Night Trap, the expansion only sold 6 million units worldwide.
At June 1994's Consumer Electronics Show, Sega presented the 32X as the "poor man's entry into 'next generation' games." Although some blame Sega of America for developing this failure, the 32X was originally conceived as an entirely new console by Sega of Japan. Sega of America R&D head Joe Miller convinced Sega of Japan to strengthen the console and convert it into an add-on to the existing Genesis, but they would not make it a competitor to the forthcoming Sega Saturn. Although this add-on contained two 32-bit CPU chips and a 3D graphics processor, it failed to attract either developers or consumers as the superior Saturn had already been announced for release the next year. Originally released at US$159, Sega dropped the price to $99 in only a few months and ultimately cleared the remaining inventory at $19.95; only 200,000 units were sold.
32-bit era and beyond Edit
By the end of 1995, Sega was supporting five different consoles and two add-ons: Saturn, Genesis, Game Gear, Pico, Sega CD, 32X and Master System in PAL and some South American (predominantly Brazilian) markets. As the Saturn was leading Sony's PlayStation in Japan while the Mega Drive was never successful there, Sega of Japan CEO Hayao Nakayama chose to discontinue the Mega Drive. While this made perfect sense for the Japanese market, it was disastrous in North America: the market for Genesis games was much larger than for the Saturn, but Sega was left without the inventory or software to meet demand. In comparison, Nintendo concentrated on the 16-bit market and reported the most lucrative holiday season in the industry. It also undercut the Sega of America executives; CEO Tom Kalinske, who oversaw the rise of the Genesis in 1991, grew uninterested in the business and resigned in mid 1996.
In 1997, Sega licensed the Mega Drive to Majesco so that it could re-release the console. Majesco began re-selling millions of formerly unsold cartridges at a budget price together with the second model of the Genesis, until it later released a third version of it. The last commercially licensed release in North America was Frogger, released in 1998.
The Mega Drive was supported until 1997 in Europe, when Sega announced it was dropping support for it. It was discontinued along with its predecessor, the long-lived Sega Master System, to allow Sega to concentrate on its newer console, the Saturn. The Mega Drive's add-ons, the Mega CD and 32X, were also both discontinued at this point, having been the same general failures they were in the other regions.
On May 22, 2006, Super Fighter Team released Beggar Prince, a game translated from a 1996 Chinese original. It is the first commercial Mega Drive game since 1998 in the North American market. It was also released worldwide.
At September 1, 2008, a group of homebrew enthusiasts released a demo of their upcoming game Pier Solar and the Great Architects. It is the first commercial role-playing game specifically developed for the console since 1996.
In 2004, there came a trend toward plug-and-play TV games, and Radica Games released licensed, self-contained versions of the Mega Drive in both North America (as the Play TV Legends Sega Genesis) and Europe (as the Mega Drive 6-in-1 Plug 'n' Play), which contain six popular games in a small control box, with a permanently connected control pad. It does not have a cartridge slot, and thus is a dedicated console.
The GameTap subscription gaming service includes a Mega Drive emulator, and has several dozen licensed Mega Drive games in its catalog. The Console Classix subscription gaming service also includes an emulator, and has several hundred Mega Drive games in its catalog.
A number of games have been released on compilation discs. These include Sonic Mega Collection and Sonic Gems Collection for PS2, Xbox and Gamecube; Sega Genesis Collection for PS2 and PSP; and most recently Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection for Playstation 3 and Xbox 360 (the latter supporting Achievements/Trophies for various actions across all games and graphic smoothing). Some versions do feature slight emulation issues, such as sound problems on Sega Genesis Collection. However, the more recent compilations have save states which work exactly like the save states on computer emulators in that they will save the exact point and conditions that the game was in when a player saved it. The usage of these states do not disqualify a player from acquiring a trophy or achievement in Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection, as it's a supported game feature.
During his keynote speech at the 2006 Game Developers Conference, Nintendo president Satoru Iwata announced that Sega will make a number of Genesis/Mega Drive titles available to download on the Wii's Virtual Console. These games are now available along with other systems' titles under the Wii's Virtual Console. The 16-bit Sega selections available on the Virtual Console at launch in North America were Altered Beast and Sonic the Hedgehog as well as in addition to those two, Ecco the Dolphin and Golden Axe in Europe. There are also selected Mega Drive titles on the Xbox 360 such as Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic 2.
Master System compatibility Edit
One of the key design features of the console is its backwards compatibility with Sega's previous console, the Sega Master System. The 16-bit design is based upon the 8-bit design, albeit enhanced and extended in many areas. In order to achieve backwards compatibility, the Master System's central processor and sound chip (the Zilog Z80 and SN76489 respectively) are included as coprocessors in the Mega Drive, and the Mega Drive's Video Display Processor (VDP) is capable of the Master System's VDP mode 4, though it cannot run in modes 0, 1, 2, or 3 (so the Mega Drive its not compatible with SG-1000 software or Master System software wich uses this modes).
As the cartridge slot is of a different shape, Sega released the Power Base Converter, a separate device that sits between a Master System cartridge and the Mega Drive's cartridge slot. The Power Base Converter does not contain any Master System components, instead functioning as a pass-through device, and consisting almost entirely of passive circuitry. The converter contains a top slot for cartridge-based games along with a front slot for card-based games, as well as the 3-D glasses adapter. When a Master System game is inserted, the system puts the Z80 in control, leaving the Mega Drive's main 68000 processor idle.
In Japan the device is known as the "Mega Adapter". The PAL variant is called the "Master System Converter" in mainland Europe.
The Power Base Converter is not fully compatible with the redesigned Mega Drive 2. A second version, the "Master System Converter II", was released to address this problem. This second version adapter was produced in a far smaller quantity and only released in Europe.
The only game which does not work with this device is F-16 Fighting Falcon. (It is actually the compatibility mode of the Mega Drive/Genesis, and not the Power Base Converter itself, that is responsible for this.)
Some Master System games (such as Shanghai) are incompatible with the Mega Drive control pad, so a Master System control pad must be used instead. As it has the same connection port, the Master System pad can be plugged directly into the Mega Drive controller ports without any kind of adaptor.
The standard Mega Drive controller features three main buttons and a "start" button usually used for pausing mid-game. The controller itself has a distinctive rounded shape. Sega later released a six-button version in 1993 along with the release of Street Fighter 2, this pad is slightly smaller and features three more face buttons, similar to the design of buttons on arcade fighting games.
The Sega Mega-CD became available in 1991, 1992 and 1993 in Japan, North America, and Europe respectively. It plugs into the side of the Mega Drive and sits underneath the console (later models of the Mega CD sit alongside the console) and provides access to CD games as well as allowing the user to play music CDs.
The Sega 32X allows the user to play technically superior 32-bit games on the Mega Drive. It was released in 1994 in Japan (after the release of the Sega Saturn in that region) and North America and 1995 in Europe. The 32X plugs into the Mega Drive's cartridge slot and the game cartridges are then plugged into the 32X.
A number of other peripherals for the Mega Drive were released that add extra functionality. The Menacer Light Gun was developed in response to the Super Scope for the SNES and is only compatible with the Menacer 6-game cartridge and a few other games. The Sega Mouse and Sega Mega Mouse were also released for the Mega Drive, the latter being available in North America while the other served the Japanese and European markets. A foam-covered bat called the BatterUP and the TeeVGolf golf club were both released for the Mega Drive and SNES and provide support for similar games. One of the most unsuccessful peripherals released was the Sega Activator, an octagonal device that lays flat on the floor and reads a gamer's physical movements as he/she would trigger infrared laser beams that translate the movement to react on screen. As well the official Mega Drive peripherals, the console is also compatible with Sega Master System accessories through use of the Power Base Converter.
Both Electronic Arts (EA) and Sega released multitaps for the system to allow more than the standard two players to play at once. Initially, EA's version, the 4-Play, and Sega's adapter, the Team Player, only supported each publisher's own titles. Later games were created to work on both adapters. Codemasters also developed the J-Cart system, providing two extra ports with no extra hardware, although the technology came late in the console's life and only featured on a few games.
|Processor:||Motorola 68000 16 bit processor running at 7.67 MHz|
|Co-processor (Sound Controller):||Zilog Z80 8-bit at 3.58 MHz|
|Memory:||156KB total - 64 KB Main RAM, 64KB VRAM, 8KB Sound RAM. 20 Kb ROM|
|Maximum onscreen sprites:||80|
|Resolution:||256 × 192, 256 × 224, 320 × 224, 320 × 448|
|Sound:||Yamaha YM2612 6 channel FM, additional 4 channel PSG. Stereo sound. Also Texas Instruments SN76489 PSG (Programmable Sound Generator)|
Template:Mainarticle The Mega Drive's CPU is a Motorola 68000. The maximum addressable memory is 16 megabytes from the ROM ($00000000-00400000), to the RAM($00FF0000-00FFFFFF). The 68000 runs at 7.61 MHz in PAL consoles, 7.67 MHz in NTSC consoles. The Mega Drive also includes a Zilog Z80, which serves as the console's primary sound controller and also provides complete Master System compatibility with only a passive adapter. The Mega Drive has 64 KB of RAM.
The Mega Drive has a dedicated VDP (Video Display Processor) for background graphic and sprite control. This is an improved version of the Sega Master System Graphics processing unit, which in turn is derived from the Texas Instruments TMS9918. Images can be output at 256 pixels (32 tiles) or 320 pixels (40 tiles) across and 224 scanlines (28 tiles) or 240 scanlines (30 tiles) down. The 240-line resolutions are only used on 50 Hz (i.e. PAL) displays, as the extra lines end up in the overscan of a 60 Hz (NTSC) signal.
NTSC games use the 224-line resolution to free up more vertical blanking time to send more updates to the VDP. Colors are chosen from a total of 512 possible colors, 3 bits per RGB; some games used a small amount of flicker to simulate more colors. Graphics consist of up to 80 sprites on screen and three background planes (Window, ScrollA, ScrollB), two of which (ScrollA and Window) share the same screen space. Palettes are stored in color RAM (CRAM) and consist of 16 colors each for a total of 64 colors.
There are two primary sound chips which can both be controlled by the Z80 or the M68000; the Yamaha YM2612 Frequency Modulation (FM) chip and the Texas Instruments SN76489 Programmable Sound Generator (PSG) chip. The FM sound synthesis IC resembles the Yamaha YM2151 (used in Sega's coin-op machines) and the chips used in Yamaha's synthesizers. There are 8 kilobytes of dedicated sound RAM available to the Z80. The Yamaha uses six FM channels with four operators each, and its clock speed is the same as that of the main CPU. Stereo sound is output only through the headphone jack on model 1 systems and through AV out on model 2 systems along with mono signal. Changes in the mixing circuit resulted in later revisions of the Mega Drive producing more distorted sound output than earlier models.
There are kilobytes|KB (KiB) of Boot ROM, which is also known as the "Trademark Security System" (TMSS). When the console is started, it checks the game for certain code given to licensed developers. Unlicensed games without the code are thus locked out, but if a game is properly licensed, the ROM will display "Produced by or under license from Sega Enterprises Ltd.". Also, as a hardware-feature, with later versions of the Trademark Security System "SEGA" must be written into an area of I/O memory ($A14000) in order to turn on the VDP.
There are also 64 KB of Main RAM. The Main RAM is part of the M68000 address space. Also present is 64 KB of Video RAM, which cannot be accessed directly by CPU and must be read and written via the VDP (Video Display Processor). The Z80 has 8 kilobytes of RAM mapped into the M68000's address space that is intended to be used for program RAM. The Z80 can also access 32 kilobytes of the M68000s memory using bank-switching which is intended to be provided as a sound bank.
Inputs and outputsEdit
Two DE-9 connector (9-pin male D-connectors) on the front of the console are the controller input ports. The EXT input port is a DE-9F (9-pin female D-connector) that was used with the Meganet modem peripheral, released only in Japan. It exists on all first-model Japanese Mega Drive units, and on early American Genesis and PAL (European, Australasian and Asian) Mega Drive units. The power input is a positive tip barrel connector that requires 9-10 volts DC, at about 0.85-1.2 A, depending on the model. There is also an Expansion input port which is an Edge connector on the bottom right hand side of the console. It is used almost exclusively for connection for the Sega Mega-CD, though it was also used for the Sega Genesis 6 Cart Demo Unit (DS-16) in stores. This port is not present on the Genesis 3 model.
An A/V output, which consists of a DIN connector with composite video, RGB video, and audio outputs, is present on the system. The Mega Drive and the first model Genesis have an 8-pin DIN socket (same as Sega Master System) which supports mono audio only, but the Mega Drive 2, Multimega, and other models have a 9-pin mini-DIN connector with both mono and stereo audio. Stereo audio for the Mega Drive and the first model Genesis were supplied by the headphone jack, which is not present on later models. The Video output is an RCA jack that connects to TV A/V input. It exists on original model European and Asian Mega Drive and North American Genesis only; other models must use an external RF modulator.
The Mega Drive quite possibly received more officially licensed variations than any other console. While only one major design revision of the console was created during its lifespan, each region has its own peculiarities and unique items, while other variations were exercises in reducing costs (such as the removal of the little-used 9-pin EXT. port) or expanding the capabilities of the Mega Drive.
The Model MK-1631 (Mega Drive/Genesis 2) has a Z80 CPU, and because it is used for sound production by many games, it is a necessary component, however, depending on the board revision, the system has either a Zilog Z84C00 or a Custom Sega 315-5676 or similar.
Sega also released a combined, semi-portable Mega Drive/Mega CD unit called the Sega Multi-Mega or CDX.
Amstrad released a product called the "Mega PC"[when?], which was in effect a personal computer with a Mega Drive occupying one of its expansion slots. The graphics and sound were shared between the PC and Mega Drive components, and the system included a monitor and custom hardware to "switch" between the PC's floppy drive and the console's input ports. The first model was based on the Intel 80386 CPU running at 25 MHz, while a second model based on a 486 was also released. Both systems fared poorly in the market, due mainly to their high cost and poor performance compared to other IBM-compatible PCs at the time. However, the Mega PC has since become popular among collectors.
Majesco's Genesis 3 (single-chip and dual-chip versions) retains the Mode 4 support but has the Master System compatibility removed from the bus controller logic. This renders the Power Base Converter or any other adapter useless. 68000 software can still enable and use Mode 4, however.
The most interesting third-party version of the Mega Drive hardware was the Victor Wondermega. In addition to having all the functionality of a Mega Drive and Mega CD, it could also connect to MIDI devices to synthesize music. This model of the Wondermega included a unique motorized CD tray lid. Sega released their own version of the Wondermega with slight changes to the case design. Otherwise, it is functionally identical. JVC released a second model of the Wondermega in Japan that included a smaller footprint, a different case design and wireless controller capability. Excluded was the motorized CD tray lid (this model would be stripped down and released as the X'Eye in North America.)
The Pioneer LaserActive was a LaserDisc player with a built-in bay on the front panel for an add-on electronic module. One optional module offered was a Sega Genesis/Sega CD unit which enabled the unit to play Genesis and Sega CD games. The cartridge slot and two controller ports were on the module, while Sega CD discs were accepted in the main disc unit. The module bay was a little bit smaller than the size of a single-DIN car stereo head unit, but deeper. The LaserActive+Sega Genesis module combination also supported games in the unique Mega LD format, which stored 540 MB of game data and 60 minutes of CD-quality audio and full-motion video on LaserDisc media; Mega LD games were essentially Mega CD/Sega CD games using Mega Drive/Genesis graphics that could be overlaid on full-motion video backgrounds, and that could be potentially more complex than Mega CD games thanks to the increased media storage capacity. Not many LaserActive systems were sold, as the price of the main unit was about $970 and the Sega Genesis-compatible module cost about $600, for a total of $1570, at introduction in late 1993.
A late incarnation, in the form of a portable device is the Sega Mega Drive Handheld from Blaze International.
In July 2008 the Mega Drive Twin Pad Player by the Chinese Sega licensee AT Games went on sale. It is a 32-bit ARM CPU based hardware emulating a Mega Drive. It has 20 built in games, the same as those included to the aforementioned handheld. The unit comes with two 6-button controllers, a PAL/NTSC switch, composite video and mono sound. Additional "RedKid cartridges" have been announced but not yet released. Some original Mega Drive/Genesis cartridges have been reported to work with it. 
In 2008 the Mega Drive saw a revival from the Chinese company ATGames in the form of a new Mega Drive model. This redesigned Mega Drive has a top-loading cartridge slot, two controller slots, and is bundled with two controllers similar to the six-button controller for the original Mega Drive. Inside the console's hardware, the program for 15 games is built in. The game slot is region-free, allowing games to run regardless of region; however, since the system uses emulation instead of original hardware components, it suffers from compatibility issues with many original games. This new Mega Drive was scheduled to be released in Europe by the distributing company Blaze on 24 April 2009. No information on any other release outside Europe or China is available.
List of the built in games for the Blaze Mega Drive as follows: Alex Kidd, Alien Storm, Altered Beast, Arrow Flash, Bonanza Bros., Columns, Crack Down, Decap Attack, E Swat, Fatal Labyrinth, Flicky, Gain Ground, Golden Axe, Shadow Dancer, Sonic And Knuckles.
- ↑ "Guardiana, the Mega Drive Kingdom :: Game Informations :: Mega Drive :: Show do Milhão:". Guardiana. http://www.guardiana.net/MDG-Database/Mega%20Drive/Show%20do%20Milh%C3%A3o/. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
- ↑ "Translations". Romhacking.net. http://www.romhacking.net/?platform=11&languageid=12&perpage=30&page=translations. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 303, 360. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Pettus, Sam (2004-07-07). "Genesis: A New Beginning". www.sega-16.com. http://www.sega-16.com/feature_page.php?id=61&title=Genesis:%20A%20New%20Beginning. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
- ↑ Planet Dreamcast staff. "Sega History". http://www.planetdreamcast.com. IGN Entertainment. http://www.planetdreamcast.com/about/sega/#3. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
- ↑ 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 Christoph Bolitz. "Sega Mega Drive information". www.skillreactor.org. http://www.skillreactor.org/cgi-bin/index.pl?megadrv. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. [dead link]
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Szczepaniak, John (September 2006). "Retroinspection: Sega Mega Drive". London, UK: Imagine Publishing. http://www.sega-16.com/feature_page.php?id=68&title=Retroinspection:%20Mega%20Drive. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Console Database Staff. "Sega Mega Drive/Genesis Console Information". http://www.consoledatabase.com. Console Database/Dale Hansen. http://www.consoledatabase.com/consoleinfo/segamegadrive/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
- ↑ Sheff, David (1993). Game Over: How Nintendo Zapped an American Industry, Captured Your Dollars, and Enslaved Your Children. New York: Random House. p. 352. ISBN 0-679-40469-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 401. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 404–405. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ "SEGA'S BIZARRE EARLY 1990S VIZ ADVERTS". http://www.ukresistance.co.uk. 2006. http://www.ukresistance.co.uk/2006/03/segas-bizarre-early-1990s-viz-adverts.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 McFerran, Damien "Damo" (2007). "Hardware Focus - Sega Megadrive / Genesis". http://www.vc-reviews.com. http://www.vc-reviews.com/news/2007/03/hardware_focus_sega_mega_drive_genesis. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
- ↑ Tiago Tex Pine (2008-02-26). "How Piracy can Break an Industry - the Brazilian Case". http://www.gameproducer.net/2008/02/26/how-piracy-can-break-an-industry-the-brazilian-case/. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
- ↑ Donald Melanson (2007-11-13). "Brazil's TecToy cranks out Mega Drive portable handheld". http://www.engadget.com/2007/11/13/brazils-tectoy-cranks-out-mega-drive-portable-handheld/. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
- ↑ Luke Plunkett (2007-11-14). "Sega: Brazil Gets This Wonderful Portable Mega Drive". http://kotaku.com/gaming/sega/brazil-gets-this-wonderful-portable-mega-drive-322425.php. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
- ↑ MattG (2005-08-04). "Sega's "Anser" to a Question Nobody Asked". http://www.pressthebuttons.com/2005/08/segas_anser_to_.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-07.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 447. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Orlando, Greg (2007-05-15). "Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming". Wired News. Condé Nast Publications. 22. http://www.wired.com/gaming/gamingreviews/multimedia/2007/05/gallery_game_history?slide=22. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 405. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 406–408. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Horowitz, Ken (2007-11-20). "Behind the Design: Joe Montana Football". www.sega-16.com. http://www.sega-16.com/feature_page.php?id=298&title=Behind%20the%20Design:%20Joe%20Montana%20Football. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 424–431. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 428. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 433, 449. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 434, 448–449. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ "The Essential 50 Part 28: Sonic the Hedgehog". www.1up.com. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?cId=3134008. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
- ↑ Damien McFerran. "Retroinspection: Mega-CD". Retro Gamer Magazine (61): 84. "Sadly I have to take responsibility for that ghastly phrase," admits [former Sega of America technical director Scot] Bayless with a grimace. ... "During the run-up to the Western launch of Mega-CD ... I mentioned the fact that you could just 'blast data into the DACs'. [The PR guys] loved the word 'blast' and the next thing I knew 'Blast Processing' was born".
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 449. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 Blake Snow (2007-07-30). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro. http://www.gamepro.com/article/features/111822/the-10-worst-selling-consoles-of-all-time/. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 493. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 493–496. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 508, 531. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 535. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- ↑ "Sega (Majesco) Genesis 3". www.pelikonepeijoonit.net. http://www.pelikonepeijoonit.net/cgi-bin/page.cgi?pkpcode=genesis3. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
- ↑ "Game Rankings Recent Releases list of Genesis". CNET Networks, Inc.. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20071017040919/http://www.gamerankings.com/itemrankings/default_GEN/10. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ "Beggar Prince official website". http://www.beggarprince.com/.
- ↑ "Pier Solar at computerandvideogames.com". http://www.computerandvideogames.com/article.php?id=179728. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ↑ "Retro Gamer #49". http://www.piersolar.com/data/retrogamer_scan0.jpg. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
- ↑ "Preview: Pier Solar at Sega-16.com". http://sega-16.com/feature_page.php?id=358&title=Preview:%20Pier%20Solar%20&%20the%20Great%20Architects. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
- ↑ "Genesis/Sega CD/32X emulation". Fantasyanime.com. http://www.fantasyanime.com/emuhelp/emuhelp_gens.htm#aboutgens. Retrieved on 2009-04-17.
- ↑ "Play TV Legends Sega Genesis - Radica Games". http://www.radicagames.com/playtv-legends-sega-genesis.php. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
- ↑ Miles, Stuart. "Sega Mega Drive 6-in-1 Plug and play Review". http://www.gamesdog.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080109015529/http://www.gamesdog.co.uk/reviews/review.phtml/604/1628/sega-mega-drive-6-in-1-retro.phtml. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
- ↑ "GameTap Catalogue". http://www.gametap.com. http://www.gametap.com/play/browse/browseCatalog. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
- ↑ "Console Classix Sega Genesis games". http://www.consoleclassix.com/titleslist.html?list=ALL&system=GEN. Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Tor Thorsen (2007-10-18). "GDC 06: Revolution to play Genesis, TurboGrafx-16 games". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6146528.html.
- ↑ Old-Computers.com Staff. "Mega Drive II". http://www.old-computers.com. http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=2&c=843. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
- ↑ Master System Converter Instruction Manual, p. 7.
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 Michael Drake, Adrian Lees, and Jeffrey Lee. "Pico Drive Mega Drive Background". http://picodrive.acornarcade.com/megadrive/background.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ Pettus, Sam (2004-07-15). "Sega CD: A Console too Soon". Sega-16. http://www.sega-16.com/feature_page.php?id=256&title=Sega%20CD:%20A%20Console%20too%20Soon. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
- ↑ Pettus, Sam. "Sega CD info". http://www.eidolons-inn.net/tiki-index.php?page=SegaBase+Sega+CD&PHPSESSID=4ik5p46uopeek56bs22qo5oel2. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ John Scalzo (2007-11-19). "Zap!: A History of Light Gun Games (Special) @ Gaming Target". http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=7892. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 Vidgame.net. "Sega Genesis Peripherals". Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20071018072607/http://www.vidgame.net/SEGA/peripherals.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
- ↑ "Super NES/Famicom Peripherals". Gamers Graveyard. http://www.gamersgraveyard.com/repository/snes/peripherals/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
- ↑ "Sega Genesis at Game-Machines.com". www.game-machines.com. http://www.game-machines.com/consoles/genesis.php. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ Barr, Adrienne. "Sega Genesis Power Base Converter". Archived from the original on 2008-01-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080108225410/http://www.vidgame.net/SEGA/POWERBASE.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 "The Sega Mega Drive/Genesis". www.captainwilliams.co.uk. http://www.captainwilliams.co.uk/sega/megadrive/megadrive.php. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ "Quadro-Power" (in German). Megablast (Joker Verlag): p. 29. 1994-03-30.
- ↑ "MC68000 Documentation". www.ticalc.org. http://www.ticalc.org/pub/text/68k/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 "Genesis Collective FAQ". www.genesiscollective.com. http://www.genesiscollective.com/faq.php?myfaq=yes&id_cat=3&categories=General+Genesis+Information#16. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
- ↑ ""Megadrive sound" at arcade.ym2149.com". http://arcade.ym2149.com/megadrive/. Retrieved on 2008-10-05.
- ↑ "Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade Inc.". digital-law-online.info. 1992-10-20. http://digital-law-online.info/cases/24PQ2D1561.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-02.
- ↑ Barr, Adrienne. "Sega Genesis 2 (MK-1631)". wwwVidgame.net. Archived from the original on 2008-01-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080108225355/http://www.vidgame.net/SEGA/GEN2.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
- ↑ Stephen Munn (2008-07-25). "Review: AtGames Sega Megadrive Twin Pad Player". Aeropause. http://www.aeropause.com/2008/07/review-atgames-sega-megadrive-twin-pad-player/. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Sega mega Drive Console with 15 Games, Play.
- ↑ Sega Mega-Drive... re-released?! Computer and Video Games, 12 March 2009.
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